These reports are consistent with a number of other studies that also support the notion that promoting oxidative phosphorylation enhances cell survival and lifespan 57 — Successful attempts to prevent the development of auto- and alloimmune responses have been reported in animal models including tumor vaccination 87hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 88 — 91lupus 9293EAE 94and heart and skin transplantation These rapidly proliferating cells increase glucose uptake, glycolysis, and reduction of pyruvate to lactate even in the presence of oxygen, a process aptly named aerobic glycolysis Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work and approved it for publication.
Insulin is also able to regulate lipid and protein metabolism. Similarly, mitogen-driven proliferation of adaptive immune cells has been known for decades to be dependent on extracellular glutamine 34.
This has been confirmed in a T cell specific knockout of c-Myc, in which T cells fail to proliferate and were unable to upregulate glycolytic metabolism The rewiring of metabolic pathways within macrophages in response to environmental stimuli is a key process for macrophage effector function.
The integration of metabolic signals has a profound impact on specific immune cell responses.
Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Finally, arginine metabolism is strikingly different in M1 and M2 macrophages Acetylation of histones by histone acetyl transferases HATs requires acetyl-CoA, which is supplied via the export of mitochondrial citrate Fig.