Genetic engineering concepts and applications
Genetic engineering examples
Using other techniques, foreign genes can be inserted into eukaryotic organisms. Lesson Summary Assessment Recombinant Creature Design: Have students in pairs or individually create their own recombinant organisms. Therefore, to produce a new individual, both a diploid genetic complement and an egg cytoplasm are required. Some are even secreted by our own skin and are very difficult to inactivate. Figure The nucleic acids in a gel matrix are invisible until they are stained with a compound that allows them to be seen, such as a dye. Examples: two ears of corn in which the non-modified one is diseased; two cows in which the modified one is larger; or, since students really respond to bioluminescent organisms, show two mice in which one has been modified to glow green. Unit 3: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Expect some to suggest mutations.
Manipulating Genetic Material To accomplish the applications described above, biotechnologists must be able to extract, manipulate, and analyze nucleic acids.
The approach to producing an artificially cloned individual is to take the egg cell of one individual and to remove the haploid nucleus.
Genetic engineering process
Accessed December 9, Alternately, reverse genetics can be used to cause a gene to overexpress itself to determine what phenotypic effects may occur. Polymerase chain reaction PCR is a technique used to rapidly increase the number of copies of specific regions of DNA for further analyses Figure It also frequently involves situations in which only one or a few copies of a DNA molecule are available for further analysis. Reproductive Cloning Reproductive cloning is a method used to make a clone or an identical copy of an entire multicellular organism. Slide 2 shows two examples of modified versus non-modified mice. A gene is a section of a DNA molecule that contains the information to build a single protein. The 2 strands are then annealed at approximately 50 degrees Celsius using primers. By modifying the DNA, engineers are able to determine which traits an organism will possess. Gel Electrophoresis Because nucleic acids are negatively charged ions at neutral or alkaline pH in an aqueous environment, they can be moved by an electric field. Unit 3: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Even though they are the same organism, why are they are different? For plant modification, certain bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens may be used because these bacteria permit their plasmids to be passed to the plant's DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a large biomolecule that contains the complete genetic information for an organism. However some genes, such as those that code for proteins responsible for pigment, do have visual expression.
After delivering the presentation and lecture, go through the flow chart as a class, so that students can complete anything they missed and check their flow charts for accuracy. An entire set of DNA molecules in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is called the genome.
Assessment Pre-Lesson Assessment Discussion Questions: Initiate a brief discussion to gauge whether students have heard of or know anything about genetics. In molecular cloning with bacteria, a desired DNA fragment is inserted into a bacterial plasmid using restriction enzymes and the plasmid is taken up by a bacterium, which will then express the foreign DNA.
Accessed December 10, The resulting DNA, because it is made up of long polymers, forms a gelatinous mass.
Many restriction enzymes make staggered cuts in the two strands of DNA, such that the cut ends have a 2- to 4-nucleotide single-stranded overhang. It also frequently involves situations in which only one or a few copies of a DNA molecule are available for further analysis.
Application of genetic engineering pdf
Accessed August 31, Reproductive Cloning Reproductive cloning is a method used to make a clone or an identical copy of an entire multicellular organism. Without these provisions, there would be no subsequent development. Show slide Messenger RNA mRNA is analyzed most frequently because it represents the protein-coding genes that are being expressed in the cell. When modifying bacteria, the most common method for this final step is to add the isolated gene to a plasmid, a circular piece of DNA used by bacteria. Answer: DNA When genes are expressed, what is the final product made?
Listen to student ideas. The nucleic acids can be separated as whole chromosomes or as fragments.
Types of genetic engineering
Posted August 29, The phosphate groups on these molecules each have a net negative charge. There was speculation that because the cell DNA that gave rise to Dolly came from an older individual, the age of the DNA may have affected her life expectancy. These plasmid vectors contain many short DNA sequences that can be cut with different commonly available restriction enzymes. An example of how the genetic engineering process can be used in drug production. They were shocked again to start division. This is known as a palindrome.
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