Policy models andpolicy implementations

It doesn't see the organization as wholly determined by the political environment, neither does it ignore risks. The concern in this type of analysis is to relate these types of policy to the different branches of government and the behaviors associated with each policy area.

They must be acceptable in terms of value constraints, technical constraints, and budgetary constraints.

Consensus is developed though rational argument and persuasion not bargaining. Policy flows downward from the elite to the mass. It is highly participatory and tolerant of controversy, it concentrates on the fate of the whole organization; the fate of subunits is secondary.

This model also specifies and suggests the relationship between various institutions and how they all work together and collectively contribute to a successful policy implementation.

models of policy formulation

Elites share values that differentiate them from the mass. Public policy formed in such a State will be coercive towards the proletariat and will be pleasing to the bourgeois or the dominant group.

Systems model for policy analysis

Agencies may be captured by the groups they are meant to regulate, and administrators become increasingly unable to distinguish between policies that will benefit the general public and policies that will benefit the groups being regulated. They believe in confronting the State and demanding their rights at the very moment. Mid term appraisals are held of policy development and senior officers keep monitoring and directing the juniors at every stage of policy implementation to make it error free. When the three streams converge, a policy window opens, and a new policy may emerge. This model tries to improve the acceptability of public policy. Limitations are - paucity of time with legislature,corruption,not in session always,emergency needs to be addressed first. Describes the duties and arrangements of bureaus and departments. Policy-makers are too short on time, resources and brains to make totally new policies; past policies are accepted as having some legitimacy.

It may center on the proper role of Congress or the President, or the relationships of government and business or citizens and businesses.

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